ELO Journal 9 / 10


La Tradición Oral en el Antiguo Testamento. Aproximación al Legado de los Patriarcas, Julio Camarena Laucirica

A estética discursiva nos contos da literatura oral mirandesa: uma abordagem estatístico-pragmática, António Bárbolo Alves

La Cadena De Transmisión Mediacional En Una Leyenda Contemporánea: El Caso De Las Vacas Mutiladas Como Metáfora De La Crisis Argentina Actual, Martha Blache, Silvia. Balzano

Telling the Images. Experiences of Visualisation in the Storytelling Performances of Kyrgyz Manaschi, Sally Pomme Clayton

A Lenda do Rei Bamba, Isabel Dias

Verónica, la virgen del espejo y las tijeras. Leyendas etiológicas y rituales de evocación (II), Alejandro Arturo González Terriza

Parejas de Personajes en Cuentos Populares Españoles, Antonio Moreno Verdulla

A Expansão na Literatura Oral, Bráulio do Nascimento

Imágenes de la Mujer en los Proverbios Bánsoa del Oeste de Camerún, Céline Magnéché Ndé

Cantiga ao desafio e estetização da fala: natureza, modalidades, funções, Carlos Nogueira

El Romancero de La Yesa: Un Ejemplo del Romancero Valenciano, Amparo Rico Beltrán

Un Parent Pauvre de la Littérature Orale - Réflexions sur le conte facétieux, Michèle Simonsen

Anthropological View of Folklore, Marija Stanonik



La Tradición Oral en el Antiguo Testamento. Aproximación al Legado de los Patriarcas

Julio Camarena Laucirica

We have known since long and thanks to several scholars (Frazer, Gaster, Patel, etc.) that the biblical text has arrived to us packed with episodes and motifs that also appear in the epics of Israel’s neighbouring cultures (as the Flood, the child in the basket, the Babel Tower...), all of them generally prior to the biblical narrative.

But leaving aside the question of dates and sources of the Pentateuc, as well as its relationship with neighbouring epics, it is possible to also verify that there are episodes appearing both in the bible and in modern oral literature. Also, certain biblical passages utilized narrative sequences that already existed in oral tradition before passing onto the written texts. This incorporation did not take place in an inocuous form, it carried given functions: to validate and justify origins and behaviours. To show this fact is the objective of the present article (the first in a series of three), in which we deal in particular with the episode of Judah and Tamar (Gen. 38).

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A estética discursiva nos contos da literatura oral mirandesa: uma abordagem estatístico-pragmática

António Bárbolo Alves


In this article I intend to underline the way discourse, in folktales, obeys rules and laws that can be measured and verified. To do this, I shall analyse three narratives, in Mirandese, collected in the Land of Miranda (North Eastern Portugal) where this dialect is spoken. I then proceded to describe their structure, as well as the discursive organisation that prevails their surface simplicity and disorder.

Firstly I have outlined some particularities of this region and reflected on the role of folktales in the construction of Mirandese identity. Next I have undertaken an analysis of lexical textual and discursive data, based on a statistical survey of each of the three folktales.

My working method is based on parametric statistics. This analysis is confronted with theoretical data that confirm or confront the statistical data. This study is accompanied by a lexical ecography and a transcription of each folktale.



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La Cadena De Transmisión Mediacional En Una Leyenda Contemporánea: El Caso De Las Vacas Mutiladas Como Metáfora De La Crisis Argentina Actual

Martha Blache, Silvia. Balzano

During mid May 2002, mass media broadcasted a peculiar event: about a hundred cows were found mutilated in the Argentine pampas. Neither signs of attack by predators, nor evidence of resistance by the animal were found. Cuts performed on the animals’ bodies were so perfectly done that the case was quickly labeled as the "mysterious case of cattle mutilation". These cases implicitly refer to a legendary character, the Chupacabras (the Goatsucker), considered to be responsible for these mutilations.

Folklorists have shown that contemporary legends emerge from situations that evoke not only current social problems on people’s minds, but also that oral and mass media transmission impact on each other. The information presented in this paper was taken from local newspapers and group chats available through Internet. Data analysis follows Richard Bauman’s guidelines in his work on mediational performance. Based on his perspective it was possible to establish the participative roles of the several mediators during the mediational process of the Chupacabras legend.

Several hypotheses revolving around the idea that this legend has been so widely accepted in Argentina because of its power to evoke Argentine current conflictive situation are also presented.

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Telling the Images. Experiences of Visualisation in the Storytelling Performances of Kyrgyz Manaschi

Sally Pomme Clayton

Creating images is central to the experience of storytelling. This paper looks at the ways in which images become present when stories are told. Experiences of visualisation are discussed with Manaschis from Kyrgyzstan who tell the epic Manas. The process of visualising during their performances seems to be connected to telling the images rather than remembering the words. The physical act of embodying the story in the performance space conjures the story, transporting the Manaschis inside the epic. The imagination of the audience and the larger community combine to actually make Manas, the hero, appear.

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A Lenda do Rei Bamba

Isabel Dias

The legend of King Bamba belongs to the Iberian Medieval historical tradition. It first appeared in the Libro de las Generaciones (1260-1270), from Navarra and then, from this source, it then appeared in the first redaction of the Crónica Geral de Espanha de 1344, from where it passed on the the remake of this chronicle to the one dated from c. 1400. There are significative differences between these three versions, resulting from specific contexts of production and of narrative composition, based on the crossing of historical-literary sources. the legendary history of the farmer Bamba annointed as king of the Goths by divine will, standing out in the gallery of the Visigothic kings. He had already been given particular relief in ancient historiography, from Julian of Toledo with Historia Wambae (seventh cent.) to Lucas of Tuy, Chronicon Mundi and Rodrigo of Toledo, Historia de Rebus Hispaniae (thirteenth cent.). The legend picks up Biblical motifs, as well as images from the Iberian literature, transmitted by Arabian and Mozarabian authors.

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Verónica, la virgen del espejo y las tijeras. Leyendas etiológicas y rituales de evocación (II)

Alejandro Arturo González Terriza

The first part of this article was published in the last issue (nº7/8) of ELO In this second part, several testemonies are examined (most of them unpublished) about the invocation of a feminine spirit of mirrors called Veronica in Spanish oral literature. Analysis reveals the existence of five variants of the ritual concerned: the simple uttering of the ghost’s name; evocation through scissors and a book (usually the Bible); through a mirror; through scissors and a mirror; through scissors, book and mirror. The study examins the relationship between this ritual and the aetiological legends analysed in the first part of this article, as well as the purpose of the ritual. Finally, we offer na interpretation of the Veronica as a symbol of the passage from childhood to adolescence through the menarch and the first sexual experience.

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Parejas de Personajes en Cuentos Populares Españoles

Antonio Moreno Verdulla

We studied the folktales found in the collection Cuentos Populares Españoles by aurelio M. Espinosa (father) and we organised the dramatis personae by grouping them in pairs, in accordance with the relationship benefiaciary-opponent and the different roles of the allies. The existence of four pairs was determined, the first one corresponding to the marvellous tales and the three others to the folktales of the reconizable universe.

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A Expansão na Literatura Oral

Bráulio do Nascimento

The study of expansion in oral literature widens the knowledge of the mechanisms of transmission and reproduction of folktales and folk ballads. It also conveys relevant cultural information.

The canonical or sacred nature of number three across different cultures, that led Axel Olrik to enounce the “law of three” in oral literature, becomes a basic element for the concept of expansion.

We adopted an operational concept, having defined expansion as a macro-structure built on more than three semantically distinct elements or sequences integrated in the same sema. This definition equips the analystt with an objective instrument for the study of oral narratives (folktales or folk ballads).

Through analysis of the folktale Brancaflor (AT 313) and of the ballads Donzela Guerreira (CGR 0231) and Regresso do Marido (CGR 0113), we stress the relevance of the phenomenon of expansion for the study of oral literature.

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Imágenes de la Mujer en los Proverbios Bánsoa del Oeste de Camerún

Céline Magnéché Ndé

This article tries to prove that male chauvinism and misogyny are still thriving in the Western Cameroon by examining the proverbs in the nguem/bansoa language.

There has been, it is true, a wave of radical feminism in the 60s and 70s of the twentieth century, which led to the correction of some of the worst discriminations against women and to the conquest of some rights: today the women go to school, they play football, they occupy about half the places in the faculties of law and medicine; about ¼ of the small businesses are run by women, they drive buses, they run bars, they have a presence in the clergy and in the army, the realm of men before then. Nevertheless, male chauvinism and misogyny remain and become apparent not only in ways the behaviour and decisions in sport, cinema, politics, etc, but also — and above all — in everyday speaking and speech that contributes to reinforce in an insidious way the stereotypes that discriminate women.

The proverbs of the bansoa people are a good proof of this reality. In fact, more than any other thing, the proverbs hold the bansoa woman in a discourse that only recognises her as a domestic, reproductive nature, also as an object of pleasure, a prostitute and submissive human being, and they totally deny her intelligence and capacity to think and act with her own head. It is a discourse that is carefully passed on from generation to generation because it justifies all the archaisms and serves as a basis for all the discriminations against the bansoa woman.

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Cantiga ao desafio e estetização da fala: natureza, modalidades, funções

Carlos Nogueira

In this article we offer a theory for the Portuguese “cantigas ao desafio” (“contest songs”, poetic dueling). We shall approach them on the individual level, insofar as they are a personal creative act, and on a community level, envisaging them as a sociocultural phenomenon. Its necessary interdisciplinary and multifaced approach arises from a poetico-musical specificity that doesn’t become exhausted in musical and techno-literary components alone. It is a playful and creative game with a lot of anthropological and sociological ingredients, it is poetry in action. The contest becomes a dialogical macro-poem made out of two individual oral poems, intermingled in an alternance of forces, of variable tensions and distensions. The textual dimension is the more visible materiality of an organic process obeying to laws of improvisation in which linguistical-literary elements take part (ars poetica, grammar, rethoric, stylistics, themes, etc.). But it also obeys to extratextual factors with which the contesters interact very closely (the audience and the techonological apparatus involved in some performances for mediatic purposes).

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El Romancero de La Yesa: Un Ejemplo del Romancero Valenciano

Amparo Rico Beltrán

The only registers of oral traditional balladry (“romancero”) in the Spanish province of Valencia that had come to our notice were studies taken up with a musical purpose, so as to build an archive of popular songs, where ballads (“romances”) were of course also included. However, the purpose of such collectings was not to bring forth the balladistic reportoire of this province, and the unsung recitations were probably put aside (Beltrán, 2001).

This article intends: (1) to bring forth the collecting taken up in 1980, in La Yesa, a village in the interior of this province (now, yes, with the purpose to collect ballads); (2) to present a method which — taking into account my work along all these years — I consider as more appropriate for the collecting of ballads in this particular area; (3) to make known the reportoire of this province — with current and rarer ballads —and the existence of informants with a wide balladry knowledge.

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Un Parent Pauvre de la Littérature Orale - Réflexions sur le conte facétieux

Michèle Simonsen

Although more numerous by far, facetious tales have been much less considered and much less researched than fairy tales. They are nevertheless essential for the community which practices them. Their functions are numerous. They display fierce class conflicts and deride the powerful; they affirm the necessity of sexual differences while allowing to trangress them in imagination; they make fun of stupidity and explore the nature and limits of human intelligence; they parody fairy tales; they play with reality and with the idea of a topsy-turvy world.

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Anthropological View of Folklore

Marija Stanonik

The relationship between literary folklore and cultural anthropology could be defined by the following equation: what literary folklore is on a micro level, cultural anthropology is on a macro level. In fact, for both the polyvalence of the object, which is man, is essential.

With the new American folkloristics the levels of texture and context have been inevitably attached to the text. Ever since both levels have been creating together a folkloric event and the category of man in literary folklore cannot be avoided. Due to its place in philological as well as in social sciences, literary folklore understands its mission in a congruent union of methods of both fields.

Cultural anthropology is not just another name for ethnology, nor is it identical with it in terms of contents, but it is a broader term, possibly suitable as a common name for ethnology, folkloristics and some other close scientific fields. Such a broad concept of cultural anthropology is of course even more interdisciplinary than folkloristics itself.

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