ELO Journal 7 / 8

Index

La Ballena del Manzanares o El Barbo de Utero: Testimonios del Cuento Tradicional en el Siglo XIX, Monserrat Amores Garcia

Folk-Lore, Política y Literatura Popular en el Siglo XIX (Cartas Inéditas de A. Machado y Álvarez a Teófilo Braga), Enrique Baltanás

Elevated Inceptions and Popular Outcomes: The Contes of Marie-Catherine d'Aulnoy and Charles Perrault, Ruth B. Bottigheimer

The Woman Warrior — Fact or Tale, Sally Pomme Clayton

Teófilo Braga e Adolfo Coelho — Duas Posições Face aos Irmãos Grimm e à Colecção Kinder- und Hausmärchen, Maria Teresa Cortez

A Morte de D. Beltrão: As Origens Épicas, Garret e a Tradição Brasileira, Manuel da Costa Fontes

Verónica, la Virgen del Espejo y las Tijeras. Leyendas Etiológicas y Rituales de Evocación (Parte I), Alejandro Arturo González Terriza

El Romance de Pliego Dieciochesco El Trigo y El Dinero: Paralelos Literarios y Supervivencias Orales y Modernas, María del Mar Jiménez Montalvo

Portuguese Jocular and Novellistic Tales in Francisco X. de Ataíde Oliveira’s Collection of Folktales from the Algarve, Lise Lynæs

El Romance de La Adúltera en Hispanoamérica. Análisis de Variantes, Paco Mancebo Perales

Quadra Tradicional: Questões de Estrutura e Forma, Carlos Nogueira

Tradiciones Orales y Escritas del Romance de El Prisonero: De la Canción de La Audiencia a la Poesía de Rafael Alberti, Justo Alejo y Antonio Burgos, José Manuel Pedrosa

The Girl and the Wolf in Portuguese Oral Tradition, Francisco Vaz da Silva

In the (Oral) Territory of the Mangie, Mark Bender

Buffalo Bill and the Danish Ogres: An Examination of the Concepts of Ogres and Cavemen, Nathan E. Bender

Shutendôji: Oni with a Righteous Tongue, Noriko T. Reider


Abstracts

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La Ballena del Manzanares o El Barbo de Utero: Testimonios del Cuento Tradicional en el Siglo XIX

Monserrat Amores Garcia

Five Spanish versions of folktale type AaTh 1315, The Big Tree Taken for a Snake  are examined in this paper.  It is a joke about people from another community, of course apliable to different communities. The “other” acquires particular connotations in each version, varying in a surprising way in one of them.  We could detect three different attitudes in the reelaboration of this joke: one of making fun; another, distanced but patronizing, and a third, with the simple exposition of the case.


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Folk-Lore, Política y Literatura Popular en el Siglo XIX (Cartas Inéditas de A. Machado y Álvarez a Teófilo Braga)

Enrique Baltanás

This paper brings to light, for the first time, a series aof letters written by the founder of the Spanish Folklore Society to the illustrious Portuguese scholar Teófilo Braga — letters which are presently kept in the Public Library and Archive of Ponta Delgada (Azores, Portugal).  The thirteen letters examined show the close connection between Portuguese and Spanish folklorists in the 19th century. Through them we can also examine the ideological and political implications of the innovative concept of Folklore that both scholars shared.  A biliographical appendix is included with Portuguese themes and authors published in the journal of the Spanish Folklore Society.


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Elevated Inceptions and Popular Outcomes: The Contes of Marie-Catherine d'Aulnoy and Charles Perrault

Ruth B. Bottigheimer

Charles Perrault’s early verse fairy tales — “Les Souhaits ridicules” and “Peau d’Âne” — were nearly as indebted to Greek Mytholoty  and as floridly Baroque as those of Mme d’Aulnoy. In prose tales, however, Perrault substituted fairies for gods and goddesses and simplified both vocabulary and plot (thus moving in the direction of existing popular narrative in the Bibliothèque Bleu), while Mme d’Aulnoy mantained complex structure and elaborate syntax during her entire career. In moral terms Mme d’Aulnoy’s characters pragmatically negotiated a twisting path through na often amoral world, while Perrault’s plots more closely approximated his morally-framed conclusions. Both drew on Straparola’s tales as a source. (Since writing this article, the author has uncovered clear structural and linguistic links between Perrault’s “Le Maitre chat” and sixteenth-century French translation of Straparola’s “Constantino Fortunato”.) The two authors differed from one another principally in their treatment of magic: Mme d’Aulnoy employed it self-consciously; Perrault pretended to na unsophisticated acceptance of magic. In sum, Perrault’s tales were suitable for adoption by a popular market.


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The Woman Warrior — Fact or Tale

Sally Pomme Clayton

The theme of the warrior maiden appears throughout Middle Eastern and Central Asian folklore. Why is this theme so popular and what might these stories represent? The paper examines two Turkic epics: Harman Dali from Turkmenistan; and the tale of Kan Turali son of Karli Koja from the Ottoman Dede Korkut. Drawing on historical and cultural evidence the paper examines the relationship between the roles of the warrior woman of story, and the roles ascribed to women in the Middle East and Central Asia.

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Teófilo Braga e Adolfo Coelho — Duas Posições Face aos Irmãos Grimm e à Colecção Kinder- und Hausmärchen

Maria Teresa Cortez

The present paper offers documentation on the divergent attitudes taken up by the two founders of the Portuguese ethnographic movement, Teófilo Braga (1843-1924) and Adolfo Coelho (1847-1919), with regard to the research and collection of folktales by the Brothers Grimm.

Teófilo Braga has repeatedly demonstrated, throughout his writings, an overwhelming admiration por the Brothers Grimm, particularly for Jacob, whose example he tried to follow. In his research Teófilo Braga followed the Grimm’s Brothers theories, namely their theory on the mythical origin of folktales. He also conceived his collection of Portuguese folktales both as an ethnographic collection and as a children’s book, in the path of Kinder- und Hausmärchen.

The relationship of Adolfo coelho with the Brothers Grimm comes out as far more distanced than that of Teófilo Braga.  Adolfo Coelho read the main studies and collections of the two German philologists in a critical way, evalutaing them in the light of the most recent theories.  He opten for the publication of two separate collections of Portuguese folktales — a more “scientifical” one and another one intended for children.  It is also worth noting how Adolfo Coelho disencouraged the translation of the Brothers Grimms’ collection of folktales into Portuguese as, in his view, this was likely to be damaging, as it would encourage the contamination of national folktales.


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A Morte de D. Beltrão: As Origens Épicas, Garret e a Tradição Brasileira

Manuel da Costa Fontes

In the Chanson de Roland (c. 1100), an epic poem about the crushing defeat of the rearguard of Charlemagne’s army in Ronceveaux on August 15, 778, the emperor weeps profusely upon finding the corpse of his nephew, Rolland.  The Spanish version of that poem, Roncesvalles (13th cent.), which survives through a fragment of one hundred verses, adds a lamentation proffered by the duke Aymont before the body of his son, Renaud.  This corresponds to the ballad A Morte de D. Beltrão, where a father leaves to search for his son, who was missing from the body of knights that the emperor had ordered counted, and finds him dead.  This ballad, which is extremely rare in Spain and among the Sephardim, remains extremely popular in Trás-os-Montes, thanks to its use as a harvest song.  In the first published modern version (1851), Almeida Garrett  modified the traditional ones considerably.  The Portuguese ballad made its way to Brazil, where Celso de Magalhães collected it, in Maranhão.  The two fragments that he published in 1873 are copied from Garrett, perhaps because the investigator, who was staying in Sergipe, did not have his field notes at hand.  Although the manuscript in question was lost, O Famanaz, a poem collected by António Lopes in 1916, also in Maranhão, confirms that the old ballad had indeed become traditional in Brazil, which is the only country in the Americas to preserve it, albeit with changes that update it according to modern taste and also acclimatize it, thus turning it into a poem which is essentially Brazilian today.

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Verónica, la Virgen del Espejo y las Tijeras. Leyendas Etiológicas y Rituales de Evocación (Parte I)

Alejandro Arturo González Terriza

In the first part of this paper we examine a corpus  of legends, unpublished in their majority, related to the spectre of mirrors, usually named Veronika, in contemporary Spanish folklore.

The analysis includes a general overview on the superstitions related with mirrors (in particular their relationship with the world of the dead) as well as connotations made with the name Veronika.  Behind the diversity of the accounts, it is possible to detect the presence of a series of persistent features in these legends: the premature death of a young woman, the occasional confusion between spaces which, in the normal order of things should remain close-by and related but nonetheless distinct from each other.

The analysis of these legends — which are markedly etiological —  leads to the analysis of rituals used for the invocation of this spirit: this analysis will occupy the second part of this paper, in the next issue of Estudos de Literatura Oral.


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El Romance de Pliego Dieciochesco El Trigo y El Dinero: Paralelos Literarios y Supervivencias Orales y Modernas

María del Mar Jiménez Montalvo

El trigo y el dinero has been one of the most popular chapbook ballads from the 18th century. The text was printed by Sebastián López and  entails a dispute between the alegorical figures Wheat and Money, with Wheat winning at the end.

One of the decisive reasons for the success of this ballad was surely the retrieval of the medieval theme of the power of money, which must have been much in the popular taste if we go by its wide tradition in Spanish literature. In fact it has been picked up by authors like Juan Roiz in “Exemplo de la propriedat qu’el dinero ha” from his Libro de buen amor, and Francisco de Quevedo, in his famous poem “Poderoso caballero es don Dinero”.

We analyse an oral version of  El trigo y el dinero collected near Ciudad Real which presents, because of its archaism, an extraordinary oral modern survival  of chapbook literature.


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Portuguese Jocular and Novellistic Tales in Francisco X. de Ataíde Oliveira’s Collection of Folktales from the Algarve

Lise Lynæs

Four jocular and novelistic folktales are discussed which appear in Contos Tradicionais do Algarve by Francisco Xavier de Ataíde Oliveira. Even though these tales represent different types and different origins, they  have the common denominator of female sexual infidelity and solidarity between women.  We try to contextualise the texts and put forward the hypothesis  that the combination of these themes may reflect real tensions of the social and religious orders within society.

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El Romance de La Adúltera en Hispanoamérica. Análisis de Variantes

Paco Mancebo Perales

The above paper presents the practical result of a comparative analysis  at plot level, within a wide and varied hispanoamerican corpus  of the “romance” (Iberian ballad) La adúltera. The search for common and distinctive elements in the 42 version under examination reveals the existence of two types in the “romance”. One corresponds to the versions proceeding from the United States, Mexico and Nicaragua (Type 1); the other encompasses the texts collected in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina and uruguay (type 2); Whereas the first evolved according to its re-creators’  system of values, the second remained closer to the inherited tradition. Although both types keep enough common features, especially at the level of the significant,, to allow  one to consider one and the same “romance”, the presence or absence of a large series of  motifs — here commented upon —  is confined within the borders  outlined by the two types. with a surprising precision.

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Quadra Tradicional: Questões de Estrutura e Forma

Carlos Nogueira

The Portuguese traditional quatrain (“quadra”) is paradigmatic of  oral transmitted literature in its mutability and flexibility.  Its  highdegree of fluidity makes it into a complex space, elusive and resistent to be pinned down into rigid or permanent taxinomic classifications.  That granted, we attempted to determine, in this paper, the main lines of instability of this poetic form, and its main processes of construction, structurally and formally.  We attempted to demonsrate that the  quadra holds in it a force stemming from an “opening and closing” tension  which is related to impulses either of condensation / fixation, or of intensification /derivation of meanings.

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Tradiciones Orales y Escritas del Romance de El Prisonero: De la Canción de La Audiencia a la Poesía de Rafael Alberti, Justo Alejo y Antonio Burgos

José Manuel Pedrosa

The Iberian ballad (“romance”) El prisionero appears documented in Spanish literature since the onset of the 16th century, and some of its topics go back to as far as the 13th century.  In this paper we examine the adoption of its most characteristic formulas into lyrical and narrative songs collected in the oral modern tradition, into literary re-writings from poets like Rafael Alberti, Justo Alejo and Antonio Burgos, and even into political parodies, which this romance has also known.

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In the (Oral) Territory of the Mangie

Mark Bender

In this paper Mark Bender explores ogre-like figures in the folklore of an ethnic minority group in northeast China called the Daur.  The human-eating, multi-headed anthropomorphs are known as  mangie, and seem closely related to the Mongol mangus, a creature with similar traits.  The discussion compares Mongol and Daur ogres, drawing on epics, folk stories, and scholarly accounts.

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Buffalo Bill and the Danish Ogres: An Examination of the Concepts of Ogres and Cavemen

Nathan E. Bender

The concept of Ogre is discussed with reference to the discovery and reporting of Neanderthal Man in the nineteenth century.  The general public concept of a “Caveman” is argued to be a more recent generalization of Neanderthal, early Homo sapiens sapiens, and other fossil hominids.  The two concepts of Ogre and Caveman are shown in 20th century popular literature to be strongly related, and to have  UNFINISHED

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Shutendôji: Oni with a Righteous Tongue

Noriko T. Reider

In one of Japan’s most famous demon legends, the warrior hero Minamoto no Raiko (? – 1021) conquers the diabolic oni, Shuten dôji, by guile and deception. Dated to Japan’s Medieval period, the story suggests that with the help of deities warriors can defeat even the most monstrous villains.  Entertainment mixed with moral/ religious edification, “Shuten dôji” belongs to otogi zôshi genre.  Befitting the genre, at the moment of the demon’s mortal defeat, Shuten dôji cries, “How sad, you priests!  You said you don’t lie. There is no injustice in the words of demons.”  Righteous lamentation from a demon that abducts and eats young women appears so incongruous if not naïve – for such a diabolic character not to expect subterfuge.  At the same time, the utterance creates an abrupt shift in the narration of the legend from a pro-warrior perspective to that of the oni.  The transfer arrests the flow of the story.  Quintessentially, what transpires frames a dilemma; “how corrupt can one become in the pursuit of a virtuous goal?”  By examining the oni, my paper explores the significance of Shuten dôji’s righteousness. 

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