ELO Journal 6


Simetrías e Iteraciones Verbales con Función de Marco en Romances Viejos, Giuseppe Di Stefano

Oral Ballads as National Literature: The Reconstruction of Two Norwegian Ballads, Velle Espeland

Os Temas em Galego do Romanceiro Tradicional da Galiza, José Luis Forneiro Pérez

Echoes of Empire: A Remnant of English in the Folk Song of the Balearic Islands, Simon Furey

Typical Inter-Textual Aspects Between Slovenian Folk Song and Contemporary Slovenian Poetry, Marjetka Golež Kaučič

Cancioneiro Tradicional: Questões de Recolha e de Classificação, Carlos Nogueira

Frost-Bitten Foot: Dialogues We Live By, Ana Paula Guimarães, Carlos Augusto Ribeiro

Construcción de un Cancionero y Romancero Efímero en la Corte del III Duque de Calabria, Ignacio López Alemany

Crónicas y Romancero: La Muerte de Alfonso V de León en la Villa de Viseu, Antonio Lorenzo Vélez

Fuentes Paremiológicas Francesas y Españolas en la Segunda Mitad del Siglo XIX, Julia Sevilla Muñoz, Manuel Sevilla Muñoz

Gopher Guts and Army Trucks: The Modern Evolution of Children’s Folk Rhyms, Josepha Sherman

Notes and Reviews

Walter Brunetto La raccolta antologica Voix d’ Italie e la musica di tradizione orale italiana
Judith R. Cohen Susana Weich-Shahak, in collaboration with Paloma Díaz-Más, Romancero Sefardí de Marruecos. Antología de Tradición Oral
Maria Aliete Dores Galhoz Maria da Ascensão Gonçalves Carvalho Rodrigues, Cancioneiro [da] Cova da Beira, III: Canções Narrativas, Outros Géneros Poéticos e Adenda ao Romanceiro
Ana Cristina M. Lopes José Ruivinho Brazão (coordenador), Os Provérbios Estão Vivos no Algarve
J. J. Dias Marques Novas Colectâneas de Poesia Oral Trasmontana
Carlos Nogueira José Manuel Pedrosa, Cancionero de las Montañas de Liébana (Cantabria)
Jesús Suárez López Ana Valenciano, Romanceiro Xeral de Galicia, I: Os romances tradicionais de Galicia. Catálogo exemplificado dos seus temas



Simetrías e Iteraciones Verbales con Función de Marco en Romances Viejos

Giuseppe Di Stefano

Verbal repetition is one of the more used tools to emphasise the tone and content of any linguistical communication.In popular poetry this tool is frequently employed in the text structure, in order to reinforce the emotive and aesthetic efficiency of the discourse. Verbal symmetry is a close relative of verbal repetition. It establishes a strong semantic link between two terms, through identification or through oppostion (the latter is not unrare at the end of the text, in order to present its morality). In the present article we study verbal symmetry in a corpus of old Spanish “romances”.

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Oral Ballads as National Literature: The Reconstruction of Two Norwegian Ballads

Velle Espeland

Many of the early folklorists were equally interested in cultural politics. Collecting, publishing and researching on folk culture were often clearly aimed at the construction and support of a national identity. In this way the Middle Ages became more an instrument in contemporary cultural politics than an object of historical research.

As the first professor of folkloristics and of the language of popular song in Norway, Moltke Moe is regarded as the father of folkloristic research in this country. He devoted much of his time to the reconstruction of Norwegian folk ballads. In this article two of his reconstructions ( The Dream Vision of Olav Åsteson and Roland at The Battle of Roncevaux) are analysed. Both reconstructions have become a part of our cultural heritage.

Although his reconstructions are backed with professional authority, he turns out to be far more of a poet than a scientist. He rearranged the story, made up new words and even constructed entirely new strophes. His aim was that these ballads should establish a connection between the Middle Ages and his own time and make the Norwegians proud of their heritage


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Os Temas em Galego do Romanceiro Tradicional da Galiza

José Luis Forneiro Pérez

Since the sixties Galician literature is considered, since the sixties, as that which is expressed in Galician language.  But this linguistic criterium cannot be extrapolated to folk literature, namely to that of the traditional Galician “romanceiro”, which kept a large part of its original Castillianism.  The majority of Galician “romances” are more or less bilingual, and the monolingual “romances” in castillian or galician are, in general, rare or they present deficiencies in their traditionality, be it at the level of expression or at the level of content.  The few “romances” that that were consistently collected in the native language are occasional relatively recent importations of the tradtion of Trás-os-Montes (Northeastern Portugal), or else they are jocular or pastoral themes.  The identification of the Galician language with these last themes shows clearly that the popular classes adopted from the higher classes the association between the Galician and the lower linguistic levels.

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Echoes of Empire: A Remnant of English in the Folk Song of the Balearic Islands

Simon Furey

The work at l'Abadia de Montserrat by Pare Josep Massot i Muntaner in publishing Materials de l'obra del cançoner popular de Catalunya continues to bear fascinating fruit. Volume VIII, published in 1998, contains the only known instance thus far of a song in Macaronic English. This brief paper argues that the song dates from the time of the British occupation of Minorca in the 18th century.


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Typical Inter-Textual Aspects Between Slovenian Folk Song and Contemporary Slovenian Poetry

Marjetka Golež Kaučič

In the early part of the article the author introduces the finding that a whole range of contemporary Slovenian poets between 1958 and 1990 drew their inspiration from the form or content of individual folk songs. The author discusses the manner and processes of such linkage and goes on to present the most noteworthy phenomena in the interaction of folk and contemporary art in the work of two contemporary Slovenian poets, Veno Taufer and Gregor Strniša; these range from small “folk touches” to entire intertextual concatenations. Using the theory of intertextuality she presents two intertextual concatenations that begin with a folk song (ballad) as the basic theme. These are Galjot [The Galliot] normal" and Godec pred peklom [The Fiddler Before Hell], which she analyses in detail, identifying the changes the original text underwent in the new settings of original poetry. The article’s final finding is that folk song, particularly ballad, is traditionally and historically the most familiar canon, allowing creators of contemporary poetry to use its motifs, themes, word fragments, verse quotations and formal structures to unleash some of their own truths, their own insights into their intimate and the wider world, and their own ideas, concepts and deeper meanings into cultural circulation, thus creating new conditions for new values and new aesthetic qualities.

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Cancioneiro Tradicional: Questões de Recolha e de Classificação

Carlos Nogueira

This work studies the collection and classification criteria of the compilation of traditional folk poetry we gathered in the area of Baião (district of Porto, north of Portugal). The most important steps while preparing a “cancioneiro” are often subjected to mistakes that seriously damage the final result. That is why we chose to comment on the methods followed by some researchers of Portuguese literary folklore, who have distorted the objectivity of their work by adopting an inappropriate methodology. Actually, beyond several mistakes in classification, several authors have compromised the scientificity of their work when they altered the genuineness of some originals.

As far as the collection is concerned, comprising written and electronic registration (audio and video records), our experience has proved that even the behaviour of the performer and the audience, their approving or disapproving comments and their suitable corrections are relevant sources of informations to understand oral poetry.

When classifying the material we gathered, our priority was to use rigorous thematic, functional (so as to avoid either a scarce or an excessive number of groups and sub-groups), alphabetical and numerical criteria.

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Frost-Bitten Foot: Dialogues We Live By

Ana Paula Guimarães, Carlos Augusto Ribeiro

By comparing Portuguese and Brazilian versions of “The ant and the snow” (Thompson motif Z.42: “Stronger and Strongest: frost-bitten foot” / type AaTh 2031: “Stronger and Strongest”) and by inserting in our steps towards the interpretation of this apparently simple children’s story (a special type of formula tale, a cumulative tale) a text from Panchatantra (“The story of the female mouse”), in this paper, we want to put forward some notes on two particular topics: one related to language (the fourth step of this paper); the other to environmental philosophy (the seventh step of this paper).


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Construcción de un Cancionero y Romancero Efímero en la Corte del III Duque de Calabria

Ignacio López Alemany

The court of the Duke and Duchess of Calabria (Ferdinand of Aragon and Germana of Foix) enjoyed, between 1525 and 1538, a period of literary and musical splendour that would not occur again in any Spanish court not belonging to the crown.

Some of the major musicians and writers of this period lived under the auspices of both the vice-roys if Valencia, and many others occasionally benefited from the mecenate of the third duke of Calabria.

This literary-musical atmosphere, together with the taste for feasts, performances and celebrations in the French taste by the queen widow of Ferdinand I, the Catholic, Germana of Foix, favoured the development of a courtly literature of an ephemeral and circumstancial nature, based on the recuperation by the salons of the popular “romances” and of the lyrics in the traditional vein.

Within this type of extremely volatile literature, two Valencian poets stood up, Luis Milán and Joan Fernández de Heredia, as artisans of a genre of poetical compositions destined to dissolve themselves in the bursts of laughter from the men at the palace of Liria.


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Crónicas y Romancero: La Muerte de Alfonso V de León en la Villa de Viseu

Antonio Lorenzo Vélez

In this article we present two versions of a “romance” (collected from the oral tradition in the region of Las Hurdes, Cáceres, Spain) of which there is no record nor parallels in the old or modern “romance” collections. The “romance” enacts some episodes of the death of king Alphonsus VI of Léon at the city of Viseu, in 1028, because of wounds produced by an arrow. The first mention to these facts is found in the primitive Asturian-Leonese chronicles of the first half of the twelveth century, and reference to them also appears in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

The “romance” appears to be the product of a late adaptor who received inspiration from historical facts that he knew and wrote a “romance” about them which managed to get into the oral tradition of Las Hurdes, although in a fragmentary way and showing a marked narrative weakness. Perhaps the visit of Alphonsus XIII to the region in 1922, and the coincidence between his name and that of the protagonist of the “romance” favoured an updating of the same, allowing us to witness the ancient memories that have inspired it.


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Fuentes Paremiológicas Francesas y Españolas en la Segunda Mitad del Siglo XIX

Julia Sevilla Muñoz, Manuel Sevilla Muñoz

A selection of French and Spanish paremiographical and paremiological works from the second half of the XIX century is reviewed in this article, following the models of Georges Duplessis in Bibliographie parémiologique (1846), of José Mª Sbarbi in Monografía sobre los refranes, adagios y proverbios castellanos (1891), of Melchor García Moreno in Catálogo paremiológico (1918) and of the Apéndice al Catálogo paremiológico (1948). Most of these texts were published in Spain and France; some are from Portugal, Germany and Italy.

The aim of this paper is to contribute to fill a huge gap in compared French and Spanish parameology, namely with a critical bibliography from the Renaissance to the present day.

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Gopher Guts and Army Trucks: The Modern Evolution of Children’s Folk Rhyms

Josepha Sherman

The objective of this paper is to show that while the basic forms of North American children’s folk rhymes have remained the same throughout the century, the content has been altering continuously, revealing children’s awareness of changing cultural and societal mores. Therefore, these rhymes represent a vital and living aspect of folklore. Nevertheless this is not strictly a North American phenomenon, since children’s folk rhymes have been collected by other folklorists across Europe into Asia and Australia. While some of the rhymes studied here may be specifically North American, they certainly have their parallels throughout the world!

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