ELO Journal 3

Index

Entre a Oralidade e a Escrita: Um Estudo dos Folhetos de Cordel Nordestinos, Márcia Abreu

Em Busca da Voz do Travesti Feminino no Conto Tradicional (The female travesty in the Folktale), Luísa Atunes

Fairy Tale Motives in Advertising, Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta

Transformações não Punitivas no Romance Tradicional Conde Ninho no Memoria do Património Português (Non-Punitive Transformations in the Folk Ballad Conde Ninho in the Portuguese Tradition), Maria Aliete Dores Galhoz

About the “Authentic” and the “Spurious”, Heda Jason

The Tricky Farmhand and the Innocent Maid. Erotic Narrative and Construction of Gender in Premodern Sweden, Inger Lövkrona

Le Beau ou le Vrai ou la Difficile Naissance en Bretagne et en France d’une Science Nouvelle: La Littérature Orale (1866-1868) (The Beautiful or the Truthful or the Difficult Birth in Brittany and in France of a New Science: The Oral Literature), Fañch Postic

Entre lo Real, lo Sobrenatural y lo Marvilloso: Los ŷinn y los Gūl en la Literatura Palastina de Tradición Oral: La Jrefiyye (Between the Real, the Supernatural and the Marvellous: The ŷinn and the Gūl in Palestinian Literature of the Oral Tradition: The Jrefiyye), Monserrat Rabadán Carrascosa

Do Ciclope da Odissea ao Olharapo da Tradição Oral Transmontana (From the Cyclopes of the Odyssea to the “Olharapo” in the Portuguese Tradition of Trás-os-Montes), Manuel Ramos

Isabel de Liar. Versiones de Milà en la Biblioteca de Menéndez Pelayo (Isabel de Liar. Versions from Milá in the Menéndez Pelayo Library), Salvador Rebés

El Infante Delator: Modelos Patrimoniales, Vulgares y Virtuales en el Romancero Tradicional (“The Incriminating Child”: Patrimonial, Ordinary and Virtual Models in the Traditional “Romancero”), María Jesús Ruiz

Notes to some Stories of Arabische Maerchen, 2nd vol., translated and edited by Max Weisweler, Elisheva Schoenfeld

Capuchinho Vermelho — II: Quadro Sazonal e Simbolismo Cíclico (Little Red Riding Hood — II: Seasonal Frame and Cyclical Symbolism), Francisco Vaz da Silva


Abstracts

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Entre a Oralidade e a Escrita: Um Estudo dos Folhetos de Cordel Nordestinos

Márcia Abreu

This abstract intends to examine the chapbooks of North-eastern Brazil, a printed poetic form widely spread among the unprivileged classes of that region. It is worth understanding the success of a written and printed literature among the illiterate or those who are removed from the nuclear centres of the production of reading and writing.
The secret of the wide spread of such texts seems to lie in their mediating nature between the world of writing and that of orality. This is brought out in the poetic form used by the texts — stemming from the methods of oral composition — as well as in the means of circulation that favour oral readings.

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Em Busca da Voz do Travesti Feminino no Conto Tradicional (The female travesty in the Folktale)

Luísa Atunes

Our starting point is the motif of the feminine travesty (of women who temporarily disguise themselves as men) as it appears in 13 Portuguese versions of Folktale AT 884A (A Girl Disguised as a Man is Wooed by the Queen) — the “Goddaughter” tales. We then confront this motif with anthropological and Greco-Latin material (pre-nuptial rituals, festivals and legends), so as to bring to the surface both a silenced feminine voice and the myth of the Androgyny, where the human nostalgia of separation and isolation appears, in its mirror image, as the desire for union, totality and harmony. Could it be that these folktales keep in themselves a wiser and more solidarian voice, whose volume and clarity were blurred by the erosion of time?

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Fairy Tale Motives in Advertising

Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta

In this paper I propose to follow Wolfgang Miedrs’s recommendation that the many different uses of fairy tales “need to be documented and interpreted in regard to their function and significance” (Tradition and Innovation in Folk Literature, 1987, p. 4), and explore the multiple ways that fairy tale advertisements transmit meanings. First I suggest that advertising texts and images are as much an expression of creativity and imagination as more “conventional” art forms, such as poetry, prose fiction, drama or film, and should therefore be “read” in much the same way. After some brief comments about the corpus of advertisements which constitute the basis for discussion, the study considers some broad aspects of advertising. The next step is to draw parallels between fairy tales and advertisements in general, particularly how both genres play on hopes (or fears). Finally, through a series of detailed analyses of print and television advertisements which deliberately make use of fairy tale characters, plots, language and images, I explore the mechanisms of persuasion employed by advertisers to make potential consumers believe that a happy ending is possible, their dreams can come true.

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Transformações não Punitivas no Romance Tradicional Conde Ninho no Memoria do Património Português (Non-Punitive Transformations in the Folk Ballad Conde Ninho in the Portuguese Tradition)

Maria Aliete Dores Galhoz

The article considers the non-punitive transformations taking place in the Iberian ballad Condo Ninho, as it appears in the Portuguese oral tradition. After outlining the plot sequence [motifs D1275 Magic song + T80 Tragic Love + E670 Repeated reincarnation / S401 Unsuccessful attempts to kill person in successive reincarnations (transformations)], we give an overview of the main studies on the subject of “transformations” in Condo Ninho, particularly the one by Edith Rogers, 1973. We compare symbolic as well as metaphorical resemblances within a pan-European context. Finally, we examine the ascensional axiology of the transformations aimed at the union of the two persecuted lovers, in Condo Ninho, the Portuguese voicing of the universal theme “love stronger than death”.

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About the “Authentic” and the “Spurious”

Heda Jason

The problem is discussed of what should and what should not be considered “genuine” oral folk literature and therefore as belonging or not belonging to the investigated corpus. The problem is solved in favour of everything known and habitually performed in a community (irrelevant from which source it comes) being considered as “authentic” in regard to this community.
Conscious fakes are non-genuine products. Such are texts and contexts manipulated and produced in (1) culture and national revivals, (2) for purposes of political propaganda, and (3) as “folklore for tourists”, i.e., for commercial purposes. In all these cases one of the fake contexts of production and consumption are “folklore festivals”.
The status of recorded texts (both on paper and on tape) is of a photograph of a living being, i.e., it is neither genuine nor fake. In any case, the investigator is well advised to apply careful text criticism to the material he uses.

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The Tricky Farmhand and the Innocent Maid. Erotic Narrative and Construction of Gender in Premodern Sweden

Inger Lövkrona

The main goal of my study is to illuminate in what ways erotic narrative has contributed to construction of gender and to legitimize gender differences and male hierarchy in premodern Sweden. Cultural identities are constructed and negotiated in social action both through social experience and discourse. In these processes narrative performance played an important role. I combine narrative analysis with postmodern theories on gender and identity construction. This work takes as a tactic assumption that premodern women and men also thought of themselves as gendered subjects.

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Le Beau ou le Vrai ou la Difficile Naissance en Bretagne et en France d’une Science Nouvelle: La Littérature Orale (1866-1868) (The Beautiful or the Truthful or the Difficult Birth in Brittany and in France of a New Science: The Oral Literature)

Fañch Postic

France is somewhat late to follow the movement of interest developing in Europe from the end of the 18th century. Brittany then plays an important role in this rising awareness, namely thanks to Théodore Hesart de la Villemarqué (1815-1895). In 1839 he publishes the Barzaz-Briez, the first collection in France offering popular songs taken from an oral source. Immediately translated into several languages, this work makes its author famous in France and abroad. However, doubts are gradually voiced as to the authenticity of the songs contained in the collection. And when, in the last weeks of 1866, a definitive edition of the collection appears, in which La Villemarqué applies and confirms the editorial principals followed in 1839, a number of French specialists in philology literature make an open criticism of the method employed, defining, in the process, the rules to be adopted for the “scientific” publication of documents stemming from the oral tradition. Such rules will first be applied in 1868 with the Gwerziou Briez Izel, a collection of popular songs collected in Brittany by François-Marie Luzel (1821-1895). Luzel then becomes one of the main opposers to La Villemarqué. The controversy quickly surpasses the frame of a fight between the two men eager to take the first place in Brittany’s literature and turns into a fundamental opposition, at a national level, between two concepts: methodological and scientific rigour is set against good taste and esthetical values. The Beautiful or the True? Villemarqué or Luzel? A debate which, at the end of the 1860’s, will give rise to the birth of a new science: “oral literature”.

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Entre lo Real, lo Sobrenatural y lo Marvilloso: Los ŷinn y los Gūl en la Literatura Palastina de Tradición Oral: La Jrefiyye (Between the Real, the Supernatural and the Marvellous: The ŷinn and the Gūl in Palestinian Literature of the Oral Tradition: The Jrefiyye)

Monserrat Rabadán Carrascosa

The jrefiyye or marvellous tale is a specific type of oral narrative that belongs to Palestinian traditional literature. The jrefiyye is therefore a whole universe inhabited by a series of marvellous characters (gūl or ogres and ŷinn or genii). These beings appear not only in the unreal world of their tales, but they also belong to the daily experience of the people as well as to their firm beliefs. On the one hand, this work deals with the real dimension of these beings and with the way in which they are envisaged by the Arab-Moslem people as a whole and by the Palestinians in particular. On the other hand, we also make an analysis of these marvellous beings within the tales and show what they are, how they live, etc. We therefore attempt to show how the gūl and the ŷinn are present in both reality and fiction.

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Do Ciclope da Odissea ao Olharapo da Tradição Oral Transmontana (From the Cyclopes of the Odyssea to the “Olharapo” in the Portuguese Tradition of Trás-os-Montes)

Manuel Ramos

We collected the folktale under analysis (“O Olharapo”) in the Northeastern Portuguese region of Trás-os-Montes. The tale strongly resembles other European traditional tales of the same type, AT 1137 and, of course, the Cyclops episode in the Odyssey. Nevertheless it is a version with interesting variants within the type, due not only to the competence of the community inside which it grew (a village from the interior with features of common ownership), but also because of the performance of the informant, who no doubt contributed with his own experience as a shepherd. Particularly interesting is the description of the ogre’s cave and the almost Latin sentence that the Cyclops (“Olharapo”) utters as he strokes the hide of his sheep: “Passa tu que de lani es”.

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Isabel de Liar. Versiones de Milà en la Biblioteca de Menéndez Pelayo (Isabel de Liar. Versions from Milá in the Menéndez Pelayo Library)

Salvador Rebés

Manuel Milà i Fontanals was the first scholar who referred to the survival in the oral tradition of the Iberian ballad Isabel de Liar (Observaciones, 1853), although he published the oral versions a few years later (Romancerillo, 1882). My purpose was to bring out the complete corpus of these versions, which Milà only published partially. I have therefore, consulted the original manuscripts at the Menéndez Pelayo Library in Santander. The versions from Argentona surprise us with a dialogue between the king and his deceased beloved, a sequential alternative unknown until now in the tradition of this ballad.

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El Infante Delator: Modelos Patrimoniales, Vulgares y Virtuales en el Romancero Tradicional (“The Incriminating Child”: Patrimonial, Ordinary and Virtual Models in the Traditional “Romancero”)

María Jesús Ruiz

The starting point of this work is the consideration that the dramatis persona of the Iberian ballad is an open unit, depending — just as the genre that brings it forth — on the inheritance and on the innovation of each of its recreations. From this viewpoint it seems valid to tackle the analysis of particular archetypes with the purpose of proving how they fit the ethical and esthetical preferences of the different contexts within which they are transmitted.

Firstly, we propose to outline the features that form the archetype in the old forms of the “romancero”, particularly in the ballads of historical and religious themes, an area in which the figure of the “child as denouncer” appears more frequently and qualified in more detail. Once the differential outline of the archetype is established, we analyse its variability through the “romancero” of the modern tradition, where three differentiated recreations can be found, fitting, each, a type of repertoire: the ordinary, the atrocious and the burlesque derivations. Such analysis proves how, in the transmission of the dramatis persona unit, we can find concrete resources at the service of adaptability of this particular element, in each context of recreation.

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Notes to some Stories of Arabische Maerchen, 2nd vol., translated and edited by Max Weisweler

Elisheva Schoenfeld

In Arabische Maerchen Weiseiler published stories from the collections of Al-Ibshihi, Al-Jaffη’η, ibn Hijjah as well as from Damiri’s The Lives of Animals which is a treatise on zoology. All these authors lived during the period between the middle of the 14th and the middle of the 15th centuries. The stories under examination are taken from the chapter “Von den Wundern der Gnade” (=on the wonders of mercy). It mainly contains stories teaching people moral values. The questions of when and how Jewish stories were absorbed by Moslems as well as the close relationship of a number of Jewish and Moslem legends are dealt with.

Nine stories were selected for the comparison of Arab and Jewish material. Five of the investigated legends and the motif of the “Ineffable Name” in the story with the same heading seem to be of Jewish origin as the Jewish parallels partly point to the sources receding the Koran and partly stem from a Jewish minority in a hostile surrounding.

The origin of the remaining stories could not be determined as the sources of parallels in Jewish literature are postdating the Koran.

As Jewish and Islamic cultures lived side by side for centuries each influenced the other. Folkloristics were also carried in both ways. Professional Arab storytellers were borrowing from Christian and Jewish sources as well as drawing on their own imagination, and Jewish writers and Midrashim absorbed stories of “mixed” origin. The long period of mutual influence is termed by Prof. Goitein a period of “creative symbiosis”. It is hoped that a “creative symbiosis” will be reestablished particularly between israelis and Palestinians.

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Capuchinho Vermelho — II: Quadro Sazonal e Simbolismo Cíclico (Little Red Riding Hood — II: Seasonal Frame and Cyclical Symbolism)

Francisco Vaz da Silva

The present article explores, in the tradition of tale AT 333, the traces of a seasonal dimension related to concepts of cyclicity and regeneration. Through a comprehensive reading of texts of different nature — including Latin classics and modern ethnographies — we intend to establish, on a “long duration” perspective, the presence of symbolical representations concerning particular periods of the yearly cycle. We also suggest the relevance of such representations for a global interpretation of the theme of Little Red Riding Hood which enables its integration in an intercultural comparative frame.

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