ELO Journal 13 / 14

Index

“Introductory Note ”, J. J. Dias Marques

O Conto Mítico de Apuleio no Imaginário Baiano, Doralice Fernandes X. Alcoforado

As Contaminações no Conde Claros em Hábito de Frade Português, Sandra Boto

Ukrainian Folk Prose Tradition and Its Performers of the Past and Present (On the Materials from the Village of Ploske, Chernihivsky Region), Inna Golovakha-Hick, Olesya Britsyna

Des Récits sans Mémoire, ou Pourquoi Jean Resta Garçon, Josiane Bru

Des Polyphonies Sauvées des Eaux: Les Représentations de ‘la Tradition’ dans une Micro-localité de la Serra de Gerês, Anne Caufriez

Monkey-spouse Sees Children Murdered, Escapes to Freedom! A Worldwide Gathering and Comparative Analysis of Camarena-Chevalier Type 714, II-IV Tales Part II: “Beyond Europe”, Georges T. Dodds

Sete Novos Romances da Ilha da Madeira, Manuel da Costa Fontes, Maria-João Câmara Fontes

Apostillas al Catálogo Tipológico del Cuento Folklórico Español – II, José Fradejas Lebrero

Palmira Jaquetti i Isant, Catalan Folk Song Collector (1895-1963), Simon Furey

El Agua, el Canto, el Metal, y su Relación con el Mal y los Hacedores de Tormentas, Fernando D. González Grueso

The Night is Yours, the Day is Mine! Functions of Stories of Night-time Encounters with Witches in Eastern Slovenia, Mirjam Mencej

A Poesia Popularizante de Vitorino Nemésio, Carlos Nogueira

Narratives on Dream’s Effect on People in Lithuanian and Latvian Oral Folklore, Asta Višinskaitė

De ‘La Campana de Huesca’ a los Acertijos de Stalin: Representaciones de la Violencia y Alegorías Vegetales, José Luis Garrosa Gude

Los Clásicos, la Emblemática y la Razón de Estado: Lecturas Áureas de ‘La Campana de Huesca’, Alberto Montaner Frutos

Tiranos (Gengis Khan, Periandro, Anakin) y Dictadores (Ramiro II, Elidur, Moisés, Odín, Luke Skywalker): Los Mitos y las Metáforas del Poder, José Manuel Pedrosa

O Conselho do Marquês, Isabel Cardigos


Abstracts

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O Conto Mítico de Apuleio no Imaginário Baiano

Doralice Fernandes X. Alcoforado

We considered “Eros and Psyche”, Apuleius’s mythical tale, and examined the course it took and its repercussion since II AD in versions of “Beauty and the Beast”, including the 18th cent French fairy tale. The thematic and structural diversity found in the twenty four versions studied in this paper and collected in Bahia state, Brazil between 1986 and 1994 led us to outline a typological classification of those texts into five main types, giving evidence of the presence in Bahiano imaginary of the animal-bridegroom theme. Although they keep some resemblances with one another, each version presents a differentiated narrative structure as well as diversified fable contents.

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As Contaminações no Conde Claros em Hábito de Frade Português

Sandra Boto

The Portuguese corpus of the Iberian ballad Count Claros disguised as friar is very rich in contaminated versions, and — having in mind that those contaminations come from different ballads — the purpose of this article is to describe how the contaminations function in this ballad.

Firstly, and following diachronic principles, we shall observe the plot of the 16th century’s version and we shall compare it with the plot of the Portuguese versions, and draw some conclusions about the location of the contaminations. These are usually present in the ballads’ beginning, providing the Count Claros disguised as a friar’s story with a previous context. Once the list of contaminator ballads is established, we shall determine the effects of the contaminator ballads’ narrative structure on the plot of the main ballad. In many cases, contamination has subversive consequences, namely on the outline of Count Claro’s character.

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Ukrainian Folk Prose Tradition and Its Performers of the Past and Present (On the Materials from the Village of Ploske, Chernihivsky Region)

Inna Golovakha-Hick, Olesya Britsyna

A thorough fieldwork has been conducted by us in Ploske village (Chernihivsky region, Ukraine) over the last ten years, the first expedition having been performed in 1994. This fieldwork gave us some interesting and unexpected materials, very important for the study of the life of contemporary prose narrative tradition. Considering the fact that we had materials for comparative analysis collected in Ploske over a hundred years ago (by O. Malynka), we could see the life of folk prose in this community in its historical dynamics and compare it’s statuses among active and passive bearers in the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 21st century.

The materials collected at the turn of the 21st century (we recorded over 300 prose texts, most of which are demonological legends and tales) testify that folk prose tradition in Ploske did not decrease over the century, despite the strong belief of most folklorists of the second half of the 20th century that traditional folklore genres are dying and the number of knowledgeable performers is continuously decreasing.

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Des Récits sans Mémoire, ou Pourquoi Jean Resta Garçon

Josiane Bru

Seen against the great marvelous tales — whose depth and initiatory reach are immediately perceptible — how should one place those apparently meaningless and unstable traditional narratives which are grouped in the category of “Jokes and Anecdotes” in the international classification? We opted for selecting the French versions of tale-type 1696 (What Should I Have Said / Done ?) — where the stupid youth applies literally and out of time the tasks assigned to him — and we shall contrast the aimless domestic errands of this emblematic hero from laughing tales with the purposeful journey of the hero of marvelous tales. For these two types of folktales we shall relate the figure of the hero and the narrative structure which tells his adventures. Catching them mirror-wise will allow us to make up for the fragmentation of meaning that is brought forth under different forms within the totality of orally transmitted narratives.

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Des Polyphonies Sauvées des Eaux: Les Représentations de ‘la Tradition’ dans une Micro-localité de la Serra de Gerês

Anne Caufriez

The mountainous region of northwestern Portugal has been renowned since long ago for its feminine polyphonic chants, which present micro variations from one village to another and were traditionally connected with the raising of cereals (rye and maize). The village of São João do Campo (region of Terras do Bouro, district of Braga) has ceased long ago practicing agriculture, but their women continue singing polyphonically in a perfect way, using their voices with a recreational function and passing their daughters the art of singing. One of the reasons for the idealization of their chants could have lied in the disappearance of Vilarinho da Furna, a neighboring village, swallowed by the waters of a dam.

Other musical “traditions” converge nonetheless in São João do Campo: that of the old inhabitants of Vilarinho da Furna who, every year, remember musically their vanished village; and that of the inhabitants of Aboim da Nóbrega, a neighboring village, who come to São João do Campo to sing chants praying for rain dedicated to St. John. Love for the homeland is here propitious to musical practices which are all claimed to be traditional though they are radically different, even heteroclite.

Other various “field” experiences converged in São João do Campo, such as that of Virgílio Pereira, that of Michel Giacometti as well as my own, each one with a different notion of “tradition”.

Besides intending to determine the functions of women polyphonic chants (harvest, beating of the rye, weeding, husking of the corn, drying of the flax, craftsmanship, feasts...), this article raises the question of how “tradition” should be defined.


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Monkey-spouse Sees Children Murdered, Escapes to Freedom! A Worldwide Gathering and Comparative Analysis of Camarena-Chevalier Type 714, II-IV Tales Part II: “Beyond Europe”

Georges T. Dodds

A previous part of this article (E.L.O., 11-12: 73-96) discussed the European origins of a monkey-spouse tale, wherein a woman abandoned in an uninhabited island is forced to become the wife of a large ape and mother to its progeny. She later escapes over a body of water, while the ape kills the child in full view of all. This tale corresponds to portions II, and particularly III and IV of Camarena-Chevalier tale-type 714.

In the present part of the article, similar tales, some quite recent, originating in Russia, Central to South-East Asia, in Arabic tradition, and those circulated in the Americas are presented, and compared. The setting is not always an island and the sex of the ape's human partner is not the same, but a number of elements recur consistently, including the cohabitation of ape and human and the offspring's murder occurring near a barrier of water which aids in the human's escape. This survey indicates that this tale-type is widely adapted across the world.

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Sete Novos Romances da Ilha da Madeira

Manuel da Costa Fontes, Maria-João Câmara Fontes

This paper presents seven of the fifty-four ballad versions collected by Maria-João Câmara Fontes in three villages of Madeira Island (Portugal), in July 1990. These seven versions represent a total of eleven text-types: 1. 1. O Parto em Terras Alheias (this is the second version of that ballad recorded in Madeira); 22. Frei João; 3. Bernal Francês + Claralinda + A Aparição; 4. Conde da Alemanha; 5. A Infanta Seduzida + Conde Alarcos + Flérida; 6. A Confissão de Nossa Senhora; 7. Vida de Freira. Each poem is followed by a bibliography of Portuguese versions, which, in order to stress their importance, includes a section dedicated to those collected among Portuguese immigrants in New England, California, and Canada. When appropriate, the bibliography continues with lists of Brazilian, Galician, Castilian, Catalan, Sephardic, Spanish American, and early (especially 16th cent.) versions. The final list, which we owe to the work of Samuel G. Armistead, provides a pan-European correlation.

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Apostillas al Catálogo Tipológico del Cuento Folklórico Español – II

José Fradejas Lebrero

We draw a comment on four international tale-types, the corpus of which we extend with new versions, particularly Spanish, not appearing in the catalogues of Uther nor of Camarena-Chevalier. They are types ATU 217, The Cat with the Candle; ATU 927 (2), Out-riddling the Judge / atu 985*, The Suckled Prisoner (Caritas Romana); AT 927 (c), Out-riddling the Judge; and ATU 939A, Killing the Returned Soldier.

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Palmira Jaquetti i Isant, Catalan Folk Song Collector (1895-1963)

Simon Furey

Palmira Jaquetti was one of the most important folk song collectors of the great Catalan project, the Obra del cançoner popular de Catalunya, but remains little-known outside Catalonia. In her period of field research in the 1920s and 1930s she claimed to have collected around 10,000 songs, mainly in the foothills of the Pyrenees. A woman of great intellect, she achieved academic recognition and distinction in spite of being disadvantaged by poor health, a runaway husband and the dire socio-political situation of women in Spain in the years leading up to the Civil War and afterwards. This article examines her claims and her achievements, and concludes that Jaquetti deserves much wider recognition and acknowledgement as one of the handful of truly great 20th-century European folk song collectors that includes Sharp and Bartók.


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El Agua, el Canto, el Metal, y su Relación con el Mal y los Hacedores de Tormentas

Fernando D. González Grueso

There are many storm arousers in the oral tradition. We shall nevertheless start by selecting a few examples of storm arousers who do not enjoy the fame of, let’s say, the mythological Thor, and we shall suggest a series of motifs applicable to all of them.

This article explores the methods of expulsion of evil and focuses on the relationships that it establishes with water/tempest/sea, song, and metal. Hence that – after a short introduction to the role played by such elements – we shall attempt to determine the functions that they bear over evil beings and storm arousers. From the main part of this article, we shall draw a conclusion of a social and literary nature. Finally, in the appendix, we shall add what looks like an exception, belonging to Japanese oral literature and for which we suggest a very probable precedent and direct influence. This seemingly exception will lead us to a more general reflection on the utility that folk literature offers to a given community and/ or society.

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The Night is Yours, the Day is Mine! Functions of Stories of Night-time Encounters with Witches in Eastern Slovenia

Mirjam Mencej

This paper considers the possible functions of memorates about night-time encounters with witches, recorded in 2000-2001 in the rural environment of eastern Slovenia.

The witches appeared as lights and/or led people astray, prevented them from continuing on their way or “transferred” them to another place.

Stories of people being carried away by supernatural beings could provide a culturally acceptable excuse for deviant behavior, as for instance a state of drunkenness. It is clear from several memorates that such experiences often occurred on the way back from fairs or work, and in connection with drinking bouts. At least in some cases the descriptions of such encounters would have served to conceal the sexual experiences or sexual fantasies of young males excited by sexual tension.

The women could tell such stories as a “weapon” against jealous husbands, and these memorates also had an economic function: people stopped working earlier and went to sleep in order not to meet witches, so they were well rested for work the next day.

But the most important function of the memorates about encounters with “night witches” was their demarcation of boundary places and boundary times – places that became dangerous at certain times of the day.

Finally, the memorates had a psychological function: telling stories about such experiences (place, time, form) allowed people to have a safe means of orientation in space, made them aware of permissible and impermissible movements in space and time and – if they failed to follow these rules – made them familiar with the consequences that they could expect from such behavior.

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A Poesia Popularizante de Vitorino Nemésio

Carlos Nogueira

Festa Redonda, by Portuguese poet Vitorino Nemésio, was published in 1950. It is a book written by a multifarious poet, ecstatic about the telluric and literary substance of his homeland. The appealing strength of the poems gathered in this book stems largely from oral literature, to which Nemésio's creativity confers an original and individual quality. In Festa Redonda the euphoria of the land and of artistic orality interacts with the features of modern poetry that run through a large part of Nemésio’s poetry, i.e. its austerity and its obsessive idea of the void.

The poetry of Festa Redonda is rooted in the remote sources of the human and literary initiation of Nemésio: folk quatrains and other oral genres he was close to since his childhood. It is a festive macro discourse that will never leave him as a poet whose expression and substance are always varied and versatile. Reading these poems is somehow like entering in the individuality of a creative spirit who searches for his own idiosyncratic (uni)diversity merging into the orality of his community.

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Narratives on Dream’s Effect on People in Lithuanian and Latvian Oral Folklore

Asta Višinskaitė

In this article we studied certain cases of dreaming in narrative folklore of the Baltic nations. We try to ascertain the effect of a dream on the hero-protagonist in narratives about miraculous recovery where certain information is obtained through a dream. Data of oral folklore recorded in the 20th century have been used.

Through analysis two aspects were singled out: 1. The inner effect on the protagonist of a narrative. Encouraged by a dream, he / she acts and achieves positive results. 2. The outer effect on listeners of a story and on the narrator himself, when the protagonist’s action set an example. A case of a hero has an effect on the audience and the narrator. Such stories urge people to have faith in dreams and in the actions they induce one to perform

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De ‘La Campana de Huesca’ a los Acertijos de Stalin: Representaciones de la Violencia y Alegorías Vegetales

José Luis Garrosa Gude

In this article we analyze some counterparts of the legend “The Bell of Huesca” to be found in contemporary press and cinema. Those counterparts make up new and very curious links of the long chain of metamorphoses of “The enigmatic advice” motif, from Herodotus’ testimony to contemporary artistic creations. Together with that motif we also study another one which we can call “The harvest of heads as if they were vegetables”, typical of epic literature and already referred to by Samuel G. Armistead and Diego Catalán, together with other vegetable allegories on war and murder.

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Los Clásicos, la Emblemática y la Razón de Estado: Lecturas Áureas de ‘La Campana de Huesca’

Alberto Montaner Frutos

In the Iconologia by Cesare Ripa, the allegory for the Reason of State presents a series of elements among which the image (taken from Livy) stands out of the sceptre which beheads the taller heads of a poppy bush. This image – either because it derives from similar sources or because of a thematic coincidence – also appeared in the old Aragonese legend of the “Bell of Huesca”. The connection between the legendary Aragonese historical episode and the text of the Latin historian – brought explicitly forth on this subject by Jerónimo Zurita – gives rise, in the Spanish “Siglo de Oro”, to a new reading of Medieval chronics on a political key, a rereading which would obviously fit the contemporary mentality. Hence, the explanation of the supposed motivations of 12th century king Ramiro II of Aragon becomes a rereading of the episode under a Tacitist key. The final result is that the motif under examination leads the Aragonese historians of the time –including Zurita himself and Martínez del Villar – to a position which coincides in many aspects with the Reason of State, as Ripa had represented it in his allegory.

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Tiranos (Gengis Khan, Periandro, Anakin) y Dictadores (Ramiro II, Elidur, Moisés, Odín, Luke Skywalker): Los Mitos y las Metáforas del Poder

José Manuel Pedrosa

The narrative motif of the tyrant who beheads his rebel subjects as if they were corn heads or plants exists in attested in folktales, legends and epics of many different times and places, from the Greece of Herodotus to the China of Genghis Khan. And it comes down to modern fiction, including novels and films, often transformed and developed. On its way, it gets mixed with other motifs and integrated in different narrative types which have in common the overall theme of the abuse of political power.

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O Conselho do Marquês

Isabel Cardigos

The previous set of articles on the same theme – the advice to behead rebel subjects signaled with the beheading of corn heads – led to this note, in which a new folktale subtype is proposed for the narrative. From the one version of which there is a transcription in Portugal, I now transcribe its two redactions (both probably by the same redactor, Cardoso Martha), and tried to compare them as significant time indicators, one appearing in 1912 and the other in 1931.

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